tisdag 24 september 2013

A Google translate translation of a press release from the SBU   See  http://www.sbu.se/en/

Published: 2013
Report Type : Yellow
Report number : 218
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Food in obesity

SBU's conclusions

The purpose of this report was to systematically compile the scientific literature for advice on food to , or actually food intake in individuals with obesity.

The following conclusions are limited to the connection between food and weight , morbidity and mortality in people with obesity (defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 or waist circumference ≥ 102 cm or ≥ 88 cm for men and women respectively ) . Links with other outcomes reported in the introduction to each sub-section of the report.

SBU has previously addressed food for people with diabetes. The results for people with obesity and diabetes, pointing at large in the same direction. We have in this report are not evaluated methods to communicate dietary guidelines. We have not examined the scientific literature for the relationship between food and health in the general population .

Weight loss in adults. Several tips on changing eating and drinking habits can reduce weight or waist circumference in subjects with obesity. In the short term (six months ) is advice on strict or moderate low carbohydrate diet is more effective for weight loss than low-fat diets advice . In the long run there are no differences in efficacy between weight loss tips on strict and moderate low carbohydrate diet , low-fat diets , high protein diet , Mediterranean diet , diet focuses on low- glycemic load diet or a high proportion of monounsaturated fats. Advice on higher intake of dairy products (mainly milk) or reduced intake of sugary drinks can also lead to weight loss.

Weight loss in children and adolescents. Advice on higher intake of dairy products (mainly milk ) can lead to weight loss among children and adolescents with obesity. The scientific evidence is insufficient to determine whether other dietary guidelines that are effective for adults with obesity are also effective for people under 18.

Retention of the lower weight. After that obese people have lost weight they can maintain their weight better with advice on low-fat diets with low glycemic index and / or high protein content than with low-fat diets with high glycemic index and / or low protein content . There is no basis for assessing whether even advice, eg, low-carbohydrate diet and the Mediterranean diet is effective in preventing weight gain after weight loss.

Illness or death from cardiovascular disease . For people with obesity , intensive counseling on the Mediterranean diet leads( with extra olive oil or nuts and almonds ) to lower risk of illness or death from cardiovascular disease compared with advice on low-fat diets . Those who drink a lot of coffee also have lower mortality from any cause.

Onset of diabetes. People with obesity have a greatly increased risk for diabetes. The risk of developing diabetes is lower in those who drink alcohol and those who drink a lot of coffee, but it is higher in those who drink sugary drinks . However, advise on low-fat diets does not lead to a reduced risk of developing diabetes compared with advice on a diet with standard content of fat among obese women who have passed menopause.

Knowledge gaps . It is not possible to determine whether other types of food or drink is important for morbidity or mortality in people with obesity. The scientific evidence is insufficient. Documentation is also insufficient to determine the effect on mortality, morbidity or weight loss in obese individuals by studying the following foods : fruits, vegetables , whole grains, legumes , potatoes , soy products, meat and meat products .

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